The belief system of the preislamic arabic society is a mix of the 3 following influences: Jewish, Nazarean and Babylonian. As the Quran was revealed in this specific context, we could naturally expect that the terms which are used in the Quran belong to a vocabulary which was perfectly intelligible by the Arabs of that time, and that everything which is mentioned in the Quran are things which were familiar to them. Among these things, the fast of Ramadan, which was a practice already in use by the preislamic Arabs, but under a deviated form compared to the one detailed in the Quran, an hybrid version inspired from the 3 traditions: Jewish, Nazarean and Babylonian.
I- What is the month of Ramadan according to the Quran?
The month of “Ramadan” as mentioned in the Quran was a month which was already known under this name at the time of the preislamic Arabs, and was not, like the tradionalist muslims say, a month which has been renamed after the revelation of the Quran.
The month of Ramadan was therefore a month which already existed in the preislamic arabic calendar, and does not correspond to the month of Ramadan of the islamic Hegirian calendar, which was introduced only during the reign of the Caliph Umar!!!
The arabic preislamic calendar is a lunisolar calendar: its months follow the cycle of the moon, whereas the year follows the sun on the basis of the equinoxes of spring and autumn. As these two cycles does not correspond: the one of the sun lasts 365 days and a quarter, and the one of the moon lasts about 29 days and a half; 12 lunations equal approximately 354 days and 9 hours. In order to correct this difference of about 11 days, the Arabs followed the model of the Jews who used to add a 13th intercalary month to certain years (more precisely 7 times every 19 years) called Veadar by the Jews and Nasi by the Arabs
The rabbi Gamaliel, around the year 100 of our era, wrote to the jewish community of Babylonia: “We inform you that the lambs are not tender enough and the chickens are too small; The grain is not ripe. Therefore, we have decided, myself and my colleagues of the Sanhedrin, to add 30 days to this year“.
Originally, the Jews defined their calendar according to the new moon, which marks the beginning of each month, and the Aviv, ie the stage in the growth of grain. If the grain was not stripe enough during the month of Nisan (March-April), 1st month of the Hebraic calendar, a 13th month, called Veadar (meaning second Adar), is added after the 12th month (Adar) in order to delay the month of Nisan of one additional month.
Originally, the addition of the intercalary month was based on this rule and was added irregularly, but from the 4th century BC, the Jews adopted the model of the Babylonian calendar, and the addition of this month became more regular, based on a “metonic” cycle of 19 years, according to the name of the philosopher Meton of Athens who described this system in 433 BC on the basis of his study of the Babylonian astronomy. The duration of 19 solar years is very close to the one of 235 lunar months. 19 years of 12 months equals 228 months. So it is enought to add 1 additional month 7 times over 19 years in order to stay close to the solar calendar. The years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 et 19 have an additional month. The only difference between the Jewish and the Babylonian calendar is that in the Jewish calendar, the intercalary month is always added in the same position, after the 12th month (Adar), whereas in the Babylonian calendar, the intercalary month is added one month later at each year of 13 months.
Notice how the names of the months of the Babylonian calendar are very close to the names of the months of the Hebraïc calendar
The Arabs of the preislamic society were highly influenced by the Jews, who were very present among the aristocracy. Abu Ma’char relates that the Arabs have adopted the model of intercalation from the Jews, but that from 358 AC, they were in conflict with Judaïsm and therefore introduced their own system of intercalation, as the years which counted 13 months for the Arabs, most of the time, were different from the ones of the Jews. The Arabs continued with the system of intercalation for some time after Islam, and it was the role of the tribe of the Banu Kinanah to announce, according to more flexible rules than the ones of the Jews, which year shall count 13 months and in which position this intercalary month shall be added. Abu Ma’char relates that the common practice is to add a 13th intercalary month every 2 or 3 years, doubling each year a different month. For instance, the 1st intercalation doubles the 1st month, the 2nd doubles the second month … etc etc until all the months of the years have been doubled (as the Babylonian used to do it with their calendar).
The use of the intercalary month is an ancient pagan Babylonian tradition, and Allah has clearly banned this practice in the Quran.
The Nasi is indeed an addition to denial: thereby the deniers are led astray, for they make it profane one year and sacred another year in order to adjust the number of months that Allah has declared sacred, and therefore make profane what Allah has made sacred. The evil of their deeds is made fair-seeming pleasing to them. And Allah guides not the people who denies. S9:V37
The “Nasi“/ٱلنَّسِىٓءُ is translated by the traditionalist muslims as the “the forgotten one“, meaning that the 13th intercalary month is a month that shall be forgotten. In fact this word has nothing to do with this, but is an hebraïc word meaning “prince“, which is the title which was given to the head of the Sanhedrin, the figure who decided which year shall be completed with a 13th intercalary month in the Jewish calendar. The only difference is that the Arabs had given this mission to the Banu Kinanah tribe. The Nasi allowed the Arabs to move the holy months as they wish, by declaring the Nasi, as stated in the verse S9:V37, holy, in replacement of another holy month. As the Nasi can be placed in any position, this allowed them to brought forward or backward any holy month by one month. For instance, if the Nasi was placed just before Muharram and was declared holy, then the true Muharram month was declared profane in order to keep the same number of holy months during the year. Their choice was not motivated by religious reasons but purely by economic motives, their goal was to move the pilgrimages in more appropriate periods for their business according to the climate and to the current events (wars, conflicts ….).
With the lunisolar calendars, the first goal was to keep the years close to the solar years, and therefore, that the months, which are measured thanks to the moon in this type of calendar, stay more or less in the same positions than the months of the solar calendar. We can clearly see, only by their names, that the months of the preislamic arabic calendar, operative far before the revelation of the Quran and in place until the reign of the caliph Umar, indeed correspond to the month of the solar calendar.
- Muharram: “Holy“, one of the 4 preislamic holy months
- Safar: “Empty“, the houses of the preislamic arabs were emtpy during this month because it was the month during which they used to harvest.
- Rabi’ al-awwal (Rabi I): “Spring, the First“
- Rabi’ al-thani (Rabi II): “Spring, the Second“
- Jumada al-awwal (Jumada I): Month of dry land 1
- Jumada al-thani (Jumada II): Month of dry land 2
- Radjab: “respect“, “honor“, “removal“, the preislamic Arabs used to remove the heads of their spears and refrained from fighting during this month.
- Sha’ban: “dispersed“, the arabs used to disperse in order to seek for water during this month.
- Ramadan: “High heat“. Last month of high temperatures, with the greatest sensation of heat due to the accumulation of heat during the summer.
- Chawwal: “raised“. It’s the month when the she-camels calve and therefore raise their tail to nurse their baby.
- Dhu al-Qi’da: “The month during which the people stay seated“. One of the 4 holy months during which a a truce wass observed and war wass forbidden.
- Dhu al-Hijjah: “The month of (preislamic great) hajj“
The months of the preislamic arabic calendar correspond to the months of the solar calendar. For instance, the 3rd month of the arabic calendar is called Rabi’ al-awwal (Rabi I), “Spring, the First“, just like the 3rd month of the solar calendar, March, corresponds to the first month of Spring. Also, the 4th month of the Arabic Calendar is called Rabi’ al-thani (Rabi II), “Spring, the Second“, just like the 4th month of solar year, April, corresponds to the second month of Spring.
The month of Ramadan as used in the Quran is absolutely not the month of Ramadan of the islamic hegerian calendar, as this calendar was introduced only with the caliph Umar, and as this month was in a fixed position whereas the islamic Ramadan is not a fixed month. At the time of the prophet, the month of Ramadan was always celebrated during the same period of the year, at the end of summer.
As the months of the arabic preislamic calendar correspond to the months of the solar year, the Ramadan, 9th month of this arabic calendar, corresponds to the 9th month of the solar calendar, the month of September, and this is even confirmed by the etymology of the word “Ramadan“
Ramadan/رمضان is rooted in the words Ramadhu/رَمَضُ or Ramadhyu/رمضي.
رمضي: ما كان في آخر الصيف وأوَّلِ الخريف
Ramadhyu: what is at the end of summer and at the beginning of autumn
رَمَضُ : شِدَّةُ الحَرِّ
Ramadhu: high heat
الرَّمَضُ : المَطَر يأتي قُبُلَ الخريف
Ramadhou: the rains before autumn
“Ramadan“, etymologically speaking, is a month with high temperatures and with the first rains of automun, which indeed corresponds to the month of September.
The name ramadan/رمضان has been given to the 9th month in the arabic world far before the apparition of Islam. This word is rooted in the semetic word رمض, which refers to the high heats of summer. According to M. Plessner, this indicates that in the lunisolar preislamic calendar, this month was in summer. In the encyclopedia of Islam, it is said that only 2 months separate the month of Ramadan from a month which etymologically is related to cold.
The month of Ramadan is defined as being only 2 months away from a month related to cold, which corresponds to September which is indeed 2 months away from December.
In the Quran, all the words which are used, including the proper names, mean something. Just like “Ramadan” is not a proper name and etymologically means “high heats” or “rains before autumn” or what is “between summer and autumn“, which is clearly identified as the period of the year corresponding to the month of September. If truly the real Ramadan was the month of Ramadan of the hegerian islamic calendar, then it would mean that Allah would have used an inappropriate name for this month, as the month of Ramadan in the islamic calendar could be in winter, while the word Ramadan undeniably refers to heat.
Moreover, by calling this month by the season to which it corresponds, it allows us to locate this month whether we live in the north hemisphere, where the end of summer is in September, or in the south hemisphere where the end of summer is in March.
As a conclusion, the month of Ramadan is in March/September, according to the hemisphere in which we live
Anyway, I repeat it, there is no way that the month of Ramadan as used in the Quran corresponds to the one of the islamic calendar, as this calendar was only introduced after the death of the prophet Muhammad. Before this, the calender which was in use was the arabic preislamic calendar, whose months were in a fixed position and correspond to the months of the solar calendar.
What the Quran forbids is the intercalary month, because when a 13th month is added, it will change the position of the holy months of God (in fact it’s the holy full moons and not months, I’ll explain it later), which are meant to be celebrated in specific periods of the year, related to the seasons.
The counting/عدة of the full moons/SHAHRS/الشهور, according to Allah, is 12 full moons [per year], so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are holy: this is the right law. [During these fulls moons], do not wrong yourselves. S9:V36
A wrong interpretation of this verse has given birth to the hegerian islamic calendar. By interpreting that a year shall only count 12 moons, the muslims have banned the intercalary month of the preislamic lunisolar calendar, which role was to keep the year close to the solar year….therefore, the islamic calendar had become a pure lunar calendar and was no longer synchronized with the seasons.
This verse has been completely misinterpreted, because the muslims have understood that the “number/عدد” of full moons was 12 per year, whereas it was written that the “counting/عدة”, and not the “number/عدد”, was 12 full moons, which is completely different.
Saying that the counting of the full moons was 12/year does not mean that a year only contains 12 full moons, but rather means than only 12 full moons shall be taken into account during a year. If there are 13 full moons in a year, only 12 are counted, I’ll show you a concrete exemple later.
According to the law of Allah, the year is calculated according to the cycle of the sun. Indeed, the life of the people is governed by the seasons and not by the cycle of the moon. Therefore, the 12 months of the year are, according to Allah, the 12 solar months which always occupy the same positions in relation to the seasons, and are not identified with the new moons. The solar calendar is calculated in the basis of very complex astronomical calculations and can be predicted thousand of years in advance, and this knowledge have existed since the first men.
The role of the moon is not to count the months, but to find the precise moment of the month when the holy rites of God, such as the “fast/Siyam” and the “Hajjs/Festivals“, shall be observed. In fact, there are no 4 complete holy months but rather 4 holy full moons.
They ask you about the new moons. Say: “They serve to calculate time for mankind and for the Festival (Hajj). S2:V189
The Festivals (Hajjs) are during well known full moons/SHAHRS/أشهر. S2:V197
Indeed, the new moon allows to detect precisely the day of the full moon, as the full moon occurs 14 days after the new moon.
A year (“عام“) according to Allah corresponds to the solar year and is not, like the muslims believe, the sum of 12 moons. The proof of that is that the word “day/يوم” is repeated 365 times (the duration of solar year) in the Quran and not 354 (the duration of a lunar year). The rule of Allah is the one which is operative throughout the world, as the Gregorian calendar, a solar calendar, has been imposed all over the world, including in the muslim countries.
The solar year is based on the 4 cardinal points:
- Vernal equinoxe (21 March) : The duration of day and night is equal all over the world
- Autumnal equinoxe (23 September) : The duration of day and night is equal all over the world
- Winter solstice (21 december): The longest night of the year and the shortest day
- Summer solstice (21 June) : The longest day of the year and the shortest night
It’s around these 4 cardinal points that the 4 holy full moons are located.
The full moons of March/September mark the beginning of the fast of Ramadan, so they are located close to the vernal/autumnal equinox.
The full moons of June and December mark the beginning of the 2 annual Hajjs/Festivals and are located around the summer and winter solstices. This is confirmed by this verse of the Quran which clearly indicates 2 periods of festivals/hajjs/peregrination: in summer and in winter.
Because of the covenant of the Quraish, their covenant (covering) the peregrinations of winter and summer. They shall adore the Lord of this House, who provides them with food against hunger, and with security against fear (of danger)! S106
Since the beginning of time, men know how to detect precisely these 4 cardinal points with very simple methods. It’s enough to place 2 steles in the right direction in order to be able to detect very simply when these 4 cardinal configuration occur, it’s when the sun rises exactly aligned between the 2 steles. The holy full moons are the 4 closest full moons to these 4 cardinal points. The prescriptions of Allah can be easily implemented whatever is our geographical position and whatever is the time in which we live.
The count/عدة of the full moons/SHAHRS/الشهور, according to Allah, is 12 full moons [per year], … Four of them are holy: this is the right law. S9:V36
The 4 full moons which mark the beginning of the fast of Ramadan and the 2 Festivals/Hajjs are the 4 full moons which come just next to the 2 equinoxes and the 2 solstices. As some years may contain 13 fulls moons, it’s possible to have 2 full moons in the same month. If it is the case, the full moon which is counted is the one which directly follows the solstices/equinoxes. The Jews followed the same rule, for instance, Pessah starts at the full moon which directly follows the Spring equinox.
This is an illustration with the year 2016.
We can see that the month of March, which contains one of the holy full moons, has 2 fulls moons. The full moon which shall be taken into account is the one which immediately follow the equinox (20-21 March), so in this case, it is the full moon of March 31st, while the full moon of March 2nd is ignored… which perfectly illustrates the verse which states that “The counting of full moons, according to Allah, is 12 full moons [per year]“, in the sense that if a year contains 13 fulls moons, only 12 shall be taken into account.
Proof that SHAHR/شهر means “full moon”
The word “SHAHR/شهر” shares the same root than the following words meaning “famous”, “visible”, “in the spotlight”, like for instance we say: a “famous/mashoour/مشهور” artist. “SHAHR/شهر” was used to refer to the “moon” and “شهير/SHAHIRA” refers to a “pregnant woman“. Something which is round like the belly of a pregnent woman, in the spotlight, and which is related to the moon is …. the “FULL MOON“. The word “SHAHR/شهر” is often translated by “month” while it etymologically means “full moon“, just like the word “month” in english is rooted in the latin word “mensis” which means “full moon“. So “SHAHR/شهر” indeed means “full moon”, but is improperly translated as “month”.
The verses of the Quran which use the word “SHAHR/شهر” confirm that this word indeed means “full moon” and not “month“.
“SHAHR/شهر/the full moon” of Ramadan during which the Quran has been sent down as a guide to mankind, also as clear proofs of guidance and discernement. So everyone of you who “witness/SHAHIDA/شهد” the “SHAHR/شهر/full moon” …. S2:V185
The verse speaks about “witnessing/SHAHIDA/شهد” the “SHAHR/شهر“. “Witnessing” a full moon makes sense, whereas “witnessing” a month is non sense. If the word “SHAHR/شهر” truly meants “month“, then another word rather than “witness” would be more appropriate.
The count/عدة of the full moons/SHAHRS/الشهور, according to Allah, is 12 full moons [per year]… Four of them are holy: this is the right law. [During these fulls moons], do not wrong yourselves. S9:V36S9:V36
Allah commands us not to wrong ourselves during the 4 holy full moons. If truly it was it 4 entire months and not 4 full moons, such a command would be impossible to observe as it is impossible to refrain from sinning during 4 complete months. If truly it was possible, then we would be able to refrain from sinning all the time.
We have indeed sent it down (the Quran) in the night of Al-Qadr. And who will tell you what the Night of Al-Qadr? The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand SHAHR/شهر/full moons. S97:V1-3
Allah compares the “night of Al-Qadr” when the Quran was sent down to a thousand “SHAHR/شهر“. In general, we compare things which can be compared…. like days to days, months to months, years to years, full moons to full moons… here the comparison is between the “night of Al-Qadr” and “shahr“… Does it make sense to compare a night to a month? Not really!
But if like we’ve said “SHAHR/شهر” means “full moon“, then this comparison makes sens, as it compares the night of the revelation of the Quran to the night of the full moon.
Moreover, the verset S2:V185 says that the “SHAHR/شهر/full moon of Ramadan during which the Quran was sent down“…
==> The Quran was sent down during a “full moon“
The verse S97:V1 says: “We have indeed sent it down (the Quran) in the night of Al-Qadr“
==> The Quran was sent down during the “night of Al-Qadr“
==> The “night of Al-Qadr“ is in fact a “night of full moon“.
So comparing the “night of Al-Qadr“, which is a night of full moon to thousand fulls moons perfectly makes sense, the verses of Allah always makes sense…
The word “al Qadr” etymologically means “balanced“, which indicates that the Quran was sent down during a night of full moon, which was also the night of the equinox, as the definition of an equinox is when the duration of night and day are perfecly “balanced” (equi-noxum = Qadr) all over the world.
So if our reasoning is right, then the Quran would have been sent down during a night of full moon which also matches with the night of the equinox of September/Ramadan. So if we manage to find the year in which the Quran has been revealed, we could be able to check if this year presented this particular and rare configuration: full moon + equinox during the same night.
Exact Date of the revelation of the Quran
Allah often starts the surates by making reference to the revelation of the Quran. In the beginning of the following surate, Allah refers to an historical defeat of the Romans, which has been recorded in the books of History, and which is supposed to have occured in a date very close to the date of the revelation of the Quran
S30:V1 Alif, Lam, Mim
S30:V2 The Romans have been defeated
S30:V3 in a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious
S30:V4 within a few years. The whole command is (in the hands of) Allah from end to end: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice
In order to identify this defeat without any doubt, Allah gives a precision: after this defeat, within a few years, the Romans will take their revenge and will be victorious on their enemy. If Allah has made this prediction, it’s because the people at the time of this defeat never imagined that the Romans would be victorious again, so this prediction is a kind of miracle proving the authenticity of the Quran. Such a specific event should be recorded in the books of History, as all the figures and events mentioned in the Quran have made their mark in history… so normally, we should be able to find it.
At the time of the revelation of the Quran, 2 major empires were fighting for dominion, the Byzantines and the Persians. The Persians were the rising power at that time and they were progressively overtaking the Byzantine Empire, invading Egypt in 616, which was a severe blow as the Empire relied on grain shipments from fertile Egypt to feed the multitudes in the capital, and in 617 after their historical victory in Chalcedon, ultimate step before Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. This defeat was so severe that the Romans considered moving the government to Carthage in Africa.
In 616, the army of Sharbaraz invaded Egypt ...The loss of Egypt was a severe blow to the Byzantine empire, as Constantinople relied on grain shipments from fertile Egypt to feed the multitudes in the capital. The free grain ration in Constantinople, which echoed the earlier grain dole in Rome, was abolished in 618.
After conquering Egypt, Khosrow sent Heraclius the following letter:
“From Khosrow, the greatest of lords, and master of the earth, to Heraclius, his vile and inferior slave. Why do you still refuse to submit to our rules, and why are you still calling yourself a king? Have I not destroyed the Greeks? You say that you trust in your God. Why has he not delivered out of my hand Caesarea, Jerusalem, and Alexandria? And shall I not also destroy Constantinople? But I will pardon your faults if you submit to me, and come hither with your wife and children; and I will give you lands, vineyards, and olive groves, and look upon you with a kindly aspect. Do not deceive yourself with vain hope in that Christ, who was not able to save himself from the Jews, who killed him by nailing him to a cross. Even if you take refuge in the depths of the sea, I will stretch out my hand and grab you, whether you like it or not.”
Things began to look even more grim for the Byzantines when Chalcedon fell in 617 to Shahin, bringing the Persians within sight of Constantinople. Shahin courteously received a peace delegation but claimed that he did not have the authority to engage in peace talks, directing Heraclius to Khosrow, who rejected the peace offer. Still, the Persian forces soon withdrew, probably to focus on their invasion of Egypt. Yet the Persians retained their advantage, capturing Ancyra, an important military base in central Anatolia, in 620 or 622. Rhodes and several other islands in the eastern Aegean fell in 622/3, threatening a naval assault on Constantinople.Such was the despair in Constantinople that Heraclius considered moving the government to Carthage in Africa.
This defeat was so severe that the Byzantines had decided extreme sacrifices at all the levels: economical, political, military … It was their last chance, if these changes were inefficient, then it would mean this was their end. But, miracously, against incredible odds, these changes had paid and the Byzantines reverted the situation in 622, in what was called the “First Crusade“, 5 years after their historical defeat at Chalcedon, confirming the prediction of the Quran.
Khosrow’s letter did not cow Heraclius but prompted him to try a desperate strike against the Persians. He now reorganized the remainder of his empire to allow his forces to fight on. Already, in 615, a new, lighter (6.82 grams) silver imperial coin appeared with the usual image of Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine, but uniquely carried the inscription of Deus adiuta Romanis or “May God help the Romans“; Kaegi believes this shows the desperation of the empire at this time. The copper follis also dropped in weight from 11 grams to somewhere between 8 and 9 grams. Heraclius faced severely decreased revenues due to the loss of provinces; furthermore, a plague broke out in 619, which further damaged the tax base and also increased fears of divine retribution. The debasement of the coinage allowed the Byzantines to maintain expenditure in the face of declining revenues.
Heraclius now halved the pay of officials, enforced increased taxation, forced loans, and levied extreme fines on corrupt officials in order to finance his counter-offensive. Despite disagreements over the incestuous marriage of Heraclius to his niece Martina, the clergy of the Byzantine Empire strongly backed his efforts against the Persians by proclaiming the duty of all Christian men to fight and by offering to give him a war loan consisting of all the gold and silver-plated objects in Constantinople. Precious metals and bronze were stripped from monuments and even the Hagia Sophia. This military campaign has been seen as the first “crusade”, or at least as an antecedent to the Crusades, by many historians, beginning with William of Tyre, but some, like Kaegi, disagree with this moniker because religion was just one component in the war. Thousands of volunteers were gathered and equipped with money from the church. Heraclius himself decided to command the army from the front lines. Thus, the Byzantine troops had been replenished, re-equipped, and were now led by a competent general— while maintaining a full treasury.
By 622, Heraclius was ready to mount a counter-offensive. He left Constantinople the day after celebrating Easter on Sunday, 4 April 622. His young son, Heraclius Constantine, was left behind as regent under the charge of Patriarch Sergius and the patrician Bonus. He spent the summer training to improve the skills of his men and his own generalship. In the autumn, Heraclius threatened Persian communications from the Euphrates valley to Anatolia by marching to Cappadocia. This forced the Persian forces in Anatolia under Shahrbaraz to retreat from the front-lines of Bithynia and Galatia to eastern Anatolia in order to block his access to Iran.
What followed next is not entirely clear, but Heraclius certainly won a crushing victory over Shahrbaraz in the fall of 622. The key factor was Heraclius’ discovery of Persian forces hidden in ambush and responding by feigning retreat during the battle. The Persians left their cover to chase the Byzantines, whereupon Heraclius’ elite Optimatoi assaulted the pursuing Persians, causing them to flee.
The Quran has been sent down few time after the historical defeat of the Byzantines against the Persians in 617 and before their revenge in 622, as predicted in the Quran. Therefore, we should be able to find between 617 and 622 a full moon which happened at same time than the autumnal equinox, a very rare configuration, which corresponds to the Night of Al-Qadr.
This little Calculator of equinox which takes into account the corrections in the calendar, indicates that the autumnal equinox of the year 617 was on 20 September:
Thanks to this calculator of full moons, we have the confirmation that there was indeed a full moon on the day of the autumnal equinox of 617:
Miracle!!! Everything is now confirmed, the prediction made by Quran has been confirmed in the books of history and the special configuration of the Night of Al-Qadr is also confirmed by science!!!!
Allah confirms the exceptional nature of the “night of Al-Qadr“, night of the month of Ramadan/September when the Quran has been sent down, the night of September 200t 617, by making it the night of the autumnal equinox + the full moon, with a gap of only 1 hour, which is extremely rare, and by adding to this the Super Moon with a gap of only 2 hours…Such a configuration is so rare that we cannot even measure its frequency. But Allah, who knows everything, reveals it to us, stating that such a configuration happens every 1000 full moons … about every 80 years, a phenomenon as rare as the period of the Comet Halley.
Another miracle from Allah which prooves that what is revealed in this article is the Truth from Him is that, precisely, on March 21st 2019, when this article has been published for the 1st time, we have also experienced this very same extremely rare configuration, the same configuration which occured during the Night of Al-Qadr: Equinox + full moon + super moon. I have not tried to synchronize this article with this date as I’ve been working on the original article for months, it is the pure will of Allah and a strong sign from Him. Allah wanted to underline with this exceptional astronomical configuration an extraordinary phenomenon, which is the revelation of the Quran, and today, Allah underlines with this same astronical phenomenon the restoration of the truth about the Quran and about the true precepts of Allah, a rebirth of the true religion of Allah after 1400 years of lies against Allah and the Quran.
In summary, the calendar according to Allah is not the islamic hegerian lunar calendar, but is the solar calendar based on the astronomical calculations and not on the conjecture of the moon. The year, according to Allah, counts 365 days and has 12 months which remain perfectly synchronized with the seasons.
In truth, the moon does not serve to measure the months like it is the case with the lunar and lunisolar calendars, because if it was truly the case, then the addition of intercalary months would be absolutely necessary in order to maintain the year close to the solar year. Yet, Allah has forbidden the use of intercalary months, so if the calendar according to Allah was truly lunar or lunisolar, then it would mean that the months are not attached to the seasons. This could not be possible as Allah calls the months according to their position in relation to the seasons. The month of Ramadan is always placed at the same period of the year: between summer and autumn, therefore it is a month which belongs to a solar calendar. The Islamic calendar, the Jewish calendar, the Babylonian calendar are pagan calendars and are not the calendar as precribed by Allah, which is the solar calendar that Allah has imposed on the whole world.
The calendar has been predicted years in advance for millenaries, until the crescent moon has been introduced from paganism, from the Babylonian system of belief. The crescent moon adopted by the hegerian islamic calendar, is related to the worship of Sin/Hubal and Baal/Astaroth and to the human sacrifice (cf. les études Le Veau d’Or (No. 222) et Les Origines de Noël et des Pâques (No. 235)).
The phases of the moon only serve to locate the precise timings of the 4 holy fulls moons and to measure time. For instance, in the Christian and Jewish traditions, the full moon is called “the 14th night after the new moon“.
They ask you about the new moons. Say: “They serve to calculate time for mankind and for the Festival (Hajj). S2:V189
Passover, which is celebrated at the full moon of the month of Nisan (14th of Nisan), is always after the spring equinox. Therefore, if the full moon came before the spring equinox, then an intercalary month is added before the month of Nisan. In short, Passover was celebrated the first full moon after the spring equinox. Similarly, Sukkoth was celebrated at the first full moon after the autumnal equinox. The rule was to count 14 days after the new moon, in order to reach the full moon which marks the beginning of the celebrations of Passover and Sukkoth.
As the dates of the feasts depend on the moon, the new moon shall be observed carefully at the beginning of every month. The Talmud reports that every new moon which was observed was announced by a fire which was ignited on the peaks, and which was visible until Babylonia. Every month, new moon and full moon were celebrated. The prophets criticized these feasts. At the origin, until the exodus, the Sabbath only refered to the full moon, the feast of the 15th of every month, then it refered to the 7th day. Two majors feasts were celebrated during the full moons of the equinox: Passover, the 15th of Nisan, and Sukkoth, the 15th of Tishri.
We find more or less the same religious feasts with the Jews, located during the same periods of the year. They are not exactly identical to the prescriptions of the Quran as the Jewish practices have been deviated and corrupted by the pagan beliefs. For instance, Sukkoth is located at the same period than the fast Ramadan, the full moon of the autumnal equinox, and even its name is close to the practice of Ramadan. Sukkoth is close to the arab world “sukkuth/Silence“, which is precisely the function of Ramadan, which consists in a spiritual retreat.
II- what is the fasting of Ramadan?
In order to understand what is truly the practice of Ramadan, we must study the definition of the word “saoum/fast/صوم“, and the best way to do this is to analyze the verses of the Quran which use this word.
(to Mary) So eat and drink and cool (thine) eye. And if thou dost see any man say “I have vowed a saoum/fast/صوم to (Allah) Most Gracious: this day will I enter into no talk with any human being”. S19:V26
This verses works as a true definition of the word “saoum/fast/صوم” and defines it as an intentional silence. A kind of spiritual retreat during which we refrain from speaking to the others, except if we have no choice. In this same verse, Allah has deliberatly added “eat and drink” in order to make it clear that “saoum/fast/صوم” is not synonymous of a deprivation of food and water.
The word “saama/fast/صام” is close to the word “samata/to keep silent/صمت“, and to the word “SAMMA/صم” which means “becoming deaf“, there is a notion of limitation of what goes outside our being and what goes inside. Clearly, the etymology of the word “saoum/fast/صوم” refers to silence in general, but not only by refraining from speaking, but also at all the levels, such as limitating our interraction with the terrestrial world, being in an isolated place, limitating our movements (a kind of meditation), limitating our consumption of food, limitating our thoughts in order to be able to listen to the divine inspiration. In short, it is a silence of what is terrestrial and physical, in order to focus on what is spiritual and divine.
There is no verse in the Quran which relates “saoum/fast/صوم” to a deprivation of food and water. There is no verse in the Quran which shows a messenger of God or even a believer refraining from eating and drinking… yet this practice is presented by the traditionalist muslims as being part of the pillars of their religion. In contrast, in the pagan preislamic traditions, you can find this practice even in a more extreme version, such as a deprivation of food, water and sexual intercourses, DAY AND NIGHT over long very periods. The practice of fasting is not proper to islam and already existed in the Jewish and Christian religions:
O ye who believe! fasting/siyam/صيام is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint. S2:V183
This practice was already performed by the Jews and the Christians, but not in the form of a strict deprivation of food and water as performed in islam. It’s rather a form of contrition, the idea is to eat more modestly. Limitating our consumption to some brown bread and a few water requires the same effort as a strict deprivation of food and water … but without the drawbacks. Indeed, it’s as difficult to limitate our consumption of food as performing a strict fast, because the body gets used very quickly to this change. The benefit of a non-strict limitation of food is to keep our physical and mental abilities, which allows us to be in the right conditions for our retreat with God.
The practice of fasting in the Jewish and Christian traditions does not only consist in a limitation of food, but also consists in praying, meditating, staying in silence, studying God’s precepts, sharing the knowledge of God… The Ash Wednesday (أربعاء الرماد), introduced in the 4th century, consists in all these practices and marks the beginning of the 40 days of the Christian fast, Lent. The word “ramad/رماد/ash” is very close to the word “Ramadan” which refers to the soil when it has accumulated the heat of the summer until it becomes like ashes .
With the true religion of God, nothing is extreme or regid, we can limitate our consumption of food without going to an extreme such as a complete deprivation of food and water, we can stay in silence in order to listen to God, and at the same time, we may alternate with moments of exchanges, in order to share with the other believers what God has learned to us …everything is a question of balance and good sense when it comes ot God.
Now, this is the verse which is presented by the traditionalist muslims as their ultimate proof that the fast of Ramadan consists in a strict deprivation of food and water. This is the translation of this verse as given by the traditionalist muslims.
Permitted to you on the night of the “fasts/SIYAM/صيام“, “to have sexual intercourses/RAFATHA/رفث” with your wives. They are your “garments/LIBASS/لباس” and ye are their “garments/LIBASS/لباس“. Allah knoweth what ye used “to have secretly sexual intercourses with your wives/TAKHTANOUNA ANFOUSIKOM/تختانون أنفسكم“; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now “Cohabit with your wives/BACHIROUHONNA/باشروهن“, and seek what Allah hath “ordained for you/KATABA LAKOM/كتب لكم” and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your “fast/SIYAM/صيام” till the night appears; but do not “Cohabit with you wives/BACHIROUHONNA/باشروهن” while ye are in “ritual retreat/AAKIFOUN/عاكفون” in the “mosques/MASAJIDS/المساجد”. Those are the “limits/HOUDOUD/حدود“(set by) Allah; approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His signs to men that they may learn self-restraint. S2:V187
First, let’s start by translating correctly the underlined terms before analyzing what is truly prescribed in this verse.
“RAFATHA/رفث” does not mean at all “sexual intercourses“, but “intimate words“, the kind of “cooing” proper to a couple. It generally refers to the words that one may use with his partner.
“LIBASS/لباس” may mean “garments“, except that in this context, this is not the appropriate translation as we are not dealing with sexual intercourses. The etymology of this word refers to something which intertwines, so it is about the kind of ties that we create with our partner, very intimate and close ties, so this is not limited to sex, but it’s more general and defines our very close ties with our partner.
“TAKHTANOUNA ANFOUSIKOM/تختانون أنفسكم” is translated as “having secretly sexual intercourses with our wives“, which follows the same logic than the translations given to the 2 previous words. But as we are not dealing with sex in this context, this translation cannot fit. The exact same expression is used in the verses S4:V107 and this time, the same translator has translated it correctly: “to betray /deceive ourselves” or “to lie to ourselves“.
“BACHIROUHONNA/باشروهن” has nothing to with the word “to cohabit” as it has been translaed. The etymology is related to something which is positive. The word “BACHIR/بشير” means “the one who announces the good news“. The word “Bachchara/بشر” is used dozens of times in the Quran and means to announce a good or a bad news. The word “MOUBACHIR/مبشر” is used on TV to mean it is “ON LIVE“. In the context of this verse, it is commanded several times to not speak to our wives, even if it is to “share the good things (that has been inspired to us)” during our spiritual retreat.
“KATABA LAKOM/كتب لكم” means what Allah “has written for you“, and not what Allah “has prescribed/ordained for you“. This expression deals with something authorized by Allah, which has been given to us by Him, and is not about an obligation. So this is rather about enjoying the blessings of Allah on us, such as the joy of being with our wives.
“AAKIFOUN/عاكفون” means “to be in retreat“, but not a “ritual” retreat as it has beeen added, but rather a “spiritual” retreat. The traditionalist muslims have added the word “ritual” in order to find a sense to this prescription which is compatible with their own twisted interpretations. According to their translation, the muslims shall fast and pray the whole days of Ramadan in the mosques…. it is obvious that this cannot be true because the people cannot leave their job and their lifes during a whole month in order to stay fasting and praying in the mosques during entire days, and there won’t be enough room in the mosques to welcome all the muslims, and btw, practically, the mosques are even more deserted during the days of Ramadan than during the rest of the year. So this verse never commands the people to stay praying in the mosques during the days of Ramadan….it’s a rather question of a “spiritual retreat“, therefore, it can be performed in any place which is compatible with this practice.
The word “MASAJIDS/المساجد“, has been translated by “mosques” or “places of prosternation/prostration“, but it is not the appropriate translation. The proof of that is that this verse, as translated by the traditionalist muslims, commands “not to cohabit with your wives in the mosques” during the fast of Ramadan. Such a prescription cannot be true, as in islam the women shall not cohabit with men in the mosques in a general way, so such a prescription would be non sense. This confirms that this verse never commands to stay praying in the mosques during the days of Ramadan, simply, because the word “MASAJIDS/المساجد” does not mean “mosques“.
This word “sejd/سجد” is used several times in the Quran and etymologically means “to listen with obedience“. Which is the natural behaviour of a believer when he listens to what God is inspiring to him, he can only listen, agree and obey. Therefore, the word “MASAJIDS/المساجد” refers to any place in which we are in retreat listening to God, it could be your living room … or any other place. For instance, the Jews have perpetuated this practice by nodding when they read the Torah and when they pray, as a sign of approval of the divine word.
The word “sejd/سجد” translated as “prosternation/prostration” cannot be accepted, and this is obvious in several verses of the Quran.
Only those believe in Our Signs, who when they are recited to them fall down in prostration/سجدا, and celebrate the praises of their Lord, nor are they (ever) puffed up with pride. S32:V15
Who falls down in prostration when he hears the verses of the Quran? Nobody really does it physically! It is rather question of approving with strenght God’s verses, approving them by nodding or, in our head.
And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration/سجدا S12:V100
Of course, Jacob, a prophet of God, would never prostrate before his son, Joseph, it is a rather a full approval of his action. Morever, his parents are on the throne, it is not very convenient to prostrate physically while being at the same time on the throne.
And remember it was said to them: “Dwell in this town and eat therein as ye wish, but say the word of humility and enter the gate prostrating/سجدا; We shall forgive you your faults; We shall increase (the portion of) those who do good.” S7:V161
Obviously, it is not a physical prostration but rather the fact of listening and obeying God. The following verse shows that the word “sejd/سجد” is not a physical prostration. How the sun and the moon would prostarte physically?
Seest thou not that to Allah prostrate/يسجد all things that are in the heavens and on earth― the sun, the moon, the stars; the hills, the trees the animals; and a great number among mankind? But a great number are (also) such as are fit for Punishment: and such as Allah shall disgrace none can rise to honour: for Allah carries out all that He wills. S22:V18
The Jews of Ethiopia used to call they synagogues “Masjid“, as the synagogues are the Jews the places where they study and read the Torah, the word of God, therefore, they are indeed places where we listen to God in obedience.
The following verse is an undeniable proof that the word “Masjid” is not a “building“, therefore cannot refer to a “mosque“, as a mosque is a type of building.
Thus did We make their case known to the people, that they might know that the promise of Allah is true, and that there can be no doubt about the Hour of Judgment. Behold, they dispute among themselves as to their affair. (Some) said “Construct a building over them“: their Lord knows best about them: those who prevailed over their affair said “Let us surely build a MASJID over them.” S18:V21
“Masjid” in this verse refers to the fact to take these people (the people of the cave) as a “model of obedience to God“.
When the Quran speaks about a physical building, the words which are used are rather “bayt/house/بيت” or “mihrab/محراب/sanctuary/temple“, and never the word “mosque“.
Right graciously did her Lord accept her: He made her grow in purity and beauty; to the care of Zakariya was she assigned. Every time that he entered in the mihrab/محراب/sanctuary to see her, he found her supplied with sustenance. He said: “O Mary! whence (comes) this to you?” She said: “From Allah: for Allah provides sustenance to whom He pleases, without measure.” S3:V37
While he was standing in prayer in the mihrab/محراب/sanctuary, the angels called unto him: “Allah doth give thee glad tidings of Yahya, witnessing the truth of a Word from Allah and (be besides) noble, chaste, and a Prophet,―of the (goodly) company of the righteous.” S3:V39
So Zakariya came out to his people from the mihrab/محراب/sanctuary: he told them by signs to celebrate Allah’s praises in the morning and in the evening. S19:V11
Has the Story of the Disputants reached thee? Behold, they climbed over the wall of the the mihrab/محراب/sanctuary S38:V21
Therefore, the right translation of the verse confirms that the fast consist in a spiritual retreat: “while ye are in retreat listening obediently [to Allah]“.
With all the previous corrections, the verse which describes the fasting of Ramadan can be translated this way:
Permitted to you on the night of the “fasts/SIYAM/صيام”, “to coo with your wives. They are closely intertwined with you and and ye are closely intertwined with them. Allah knoweth what ye used to deceive yourself; but He turned to you and forgave you; from now on, you can share the good things which has been inspired to you and you can enjoy what Allah has written in your favor; eat and drink (as you wish), until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast till the night appears; but do not interrupt to share with your wives the good things that has been inspired to you while ye are in retreat listening obediently [to Allah]. Those are the limits set by Allah; approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His signs to men that they may learn self-restraint. S2:V187
Nowhere it is written in this verse that eating and drinking is forbidden, at the contrary, it is written “eat and drink“. The traditionalist muslims have deduced that the authorization of eating and drinking during the night implies the contrary during the day, but in fact, this is their own invention and the verse does not command that. During the night, it is allowed to eat, to drink and to behave normally with our wives. Whereas, during the day, the only prohibition which is commanded is to not interrupt our spiritual retreat in order to exchanges with our wives.
This is pure mathematical logic.
Either the only prescription is the following one without any further addition:
- from now on, you can share the good things which has been inspired to you
- and you can enjoy what Allah has written in your favor
- eat and drink (as you wish)
until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread“
In such a case, it would mean that from dawn to night, the opposite prescription shall be observed:
- Do not share the good things which has been inspired to you
- and do not enjoy what Allah has written in your favor
- do not eat and do not drink
But, the fact is that Allah did not use this turn of phrase in this verse. Therefore, what is indicated in red IS NOT what is presceribed during the days of Ramadan.
The truth is that Allah details both what shall be observed during the night AND what shall be observed during the day, 2 prescriptions which have nothing to do one with another. There is no deduction to be done, the verse gives clear instructions about what shall be done during the day and what shall be done during the night.
Prescriptions for the night:
- from now on, you can share the good things which has been inspired to you
- and you can enjoy what Allah has written in your favor
- eat and drink (as you wish)
Prescriptions for the day:
- then complete your fast till the night appears (which does not imply a strict ban of drinking and eating)
- do not interrupt to share with your wives the good things that has been inspired to you while ye are in retreat listening obediently [to Allah]
The fast of Ramadan consists in a complete dedication to God, an exclusive retreat with God, it’s no more than the extension of the daily Salat, except that this time, this connexion with God lasts several days, from dawn to night. The goal of this activity is to turn in direction of God and the hereafter, to step back from the everyday routine, which is necessarly more about terrestrial matters. This retreat allows us to recharge our batteries, and to focus on the right priorities, in order to come back in our daily life with a good basis and the right orientation. What’s better than God’s gifts and inspirations to help us progress in the right direction? This retreat is an excellent way to purify our bodies and minds once a year and to come back spiritually and physically healed.
This retreat can take several forms, such as staying in silence, meditating on God, listening to God’s inspiration, studying the Quran and the other books of God, alternating with phases of exchanges with the believers in order to share what we’ve learned from God, limitating our food but not necessarly a strict fast otherwise, it would be detrimental for our spiritual retreat.
If Allah says it is authorized to have normal relations with our partners during the nights of Ramadan, it’s precisely because the Pagans and some Jewish and Christian factions used to ban during the fast any contact with women day AND night… Therefore, Allah has clearly expressed in his verses that such a ban was not from Him, that’s why Allah has used the term “from now on“, to significate that these practices were already in place when the Quran has been revealed, and that they shall not be maintained. What is authorized during the night is not forbidden during the day, like the muslims have deduced. In fact the verse S2:V187 details what is the rule during the night and what is the rule during the day.
III- When and how many days?
O ye who believe! fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint. (Fasting) during “planified days/أيام معدودات“; but if any of you is ill or on a journey, shall compensate the number of planified days later. Those who are unable to do it, shall compensate by feeding an indigent. But he that will give more of his own free-will―it is better for him, and it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew! S2:V183-184
The traditionalist muslims translate “أيام معدودات” by “a fixed number of days“, in the sense of a “number of well known days“, which correspond to the 29-30 days of their lunar month of Ramadan. But we’ve showed that the month of Ramadan as used by Allah in the Quran is not the month of Ramadan of the hegerian calendar for the simple reason that this calendar only appeared during the reign of Umar. So these “well known days” could not apply for the islamic month of the Ramadan.
As we’ve showed it, the Quran does not speak about a month of Ramadan but rather about the full moon of Ramadan. In fact, “أيام معدودات” means “planified days“. Indeed, a spiritual retreat requires to organize in advance in regards to our job, the weather, our family duties, … or if there is a need to rent a place which is more appropriate for a spiritual retreat… etc etc
Concerning the duration, Allah gives us the freedom to determine the number of days that we want for our retreat. So each one shall choose according to his own needs and possibilities. The golden rule with Allah is: “no compulsion in religion“, “we receive what we are willing to give” … each one of our actions shall be intentional, so no need to force ourselves, each individual can choose the duration that he wants, and the one who does not want to do it at all, it is his problem.
In case, we cannot complete the number of days that we have initially planified for our retreat, whatever is the reason, as Allah gives us the possibility to interrupt our retreat if necessary, Allah commands us to complete the missing days at some other time.
Concerning those who cannot perform the spiritual retreat at all, whatever is their reason, the compensation is to feed a poor as many days as we would have planified for our retreat.
The full moon of Ramadan during which the Quran has been sent down as a guide to mankind, also as clear proofs of guidance and discernement. So everyone of you who witness the full moon shall fast…. S2:V185
The beginning of the fast is marked by the full moon which follows the autumnal equinox, so anyone who witnesses the full moon for himself or through another way shall start fasting. Today, our modern science is sufficiently advanced to allow us to rely on the astronomical calculations, so there is no need to see it for yourself, you can just follow the calculators of full moons.
The fast of Ramadan consists in a spiritual retreat, a kind of extension of the Salat except that it’s performed during mutiple days which are planified in advance, the number of days is up to us. The fast of Ramadan starts just after the autumnal equinox which is the perfect period of the year, as everywhere on earth, the duration of the day/night and the weather are balanced during this period. Therefore, everyone on earth can enjoy the same optimal conditions to perform this annual retreat. This retreat consists in being in silence with God, in performing prayers and in studying the Quran and the other books of God, it also consists in moments of listening to the divine inspiration, and of sharing and exchanges with the other believers concerning what we’ve learned from God. It also consist in limitating our consumption of food, but not a strict limitation otherwise it would be counter productive and detrimental for our retreat. When the night comes, there is no specific restriction, we can come back to our normal lifes. This event happens during a key moment of the year, before the beginning of the 6 months of death, darkness and cold which caracterize autumn and winter. Allah knows how hard are this period for us, and therefore, advocates us this retreat at the right timing in order to enforce us for this hardship.